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The Brake Wheel Cylinder is a Cylinder that is part of any car which is equipped with Drum type brakes as opposed to Disc Brakes.
The Cylinder is situated inside the brake drum to which the wheel is attached. Access is obtained with the removal of the wheel and the brake drum. On vehicles equipped with drum brakes, the cylinder is a common part to each wheel. On some vehicles all four wheels have drum brakes and some just on the rear wheels. On the latter the front wheels have disc brakes.
The Cylinder is part of the hydraulic brake system. It is a bolt-on piece fixed to the backplate at the top in between two brake shoes that are inside the drum. Inside the cylinder are two pistons that are forced via the foot brake, hydraulically, outwards and horizontally which enables the brake shoes to make contact with inside of the spinning brake drum causing the wheel to slow down accordingly to the time period and pressure applied to the footbrake.
The cylinder in time can wear between the inside of the cylinder and the pistons, causing leakage of the hydraulic fluid, necessitating cylinder replacement. This new cylinder will be complete with pistons and ready to install. After installation the hydraulic system will need to be bled to remove any trapped air.